by Kande Betu Ku Mesu V, Mutombo Kalonji W, Bardonneau C, Valverde Mordt O, Ngolo Tete D, Blesson S, Simon F, Delhomme S, Bernhard S, Mahenzi Mbembo H, Mpia Moke C, Lumeya Vuvu S, Mudji E'kitiak J, Akwaso Masa F, Mukendi Ilunga M, Mpoyi Muamba Nzambi D, Mayala Malu T, Kapongo Tshilumbwa S, Botalema Bolengi F, Nkieri Matsho M, Lumbala C, Scherrer B, Strub-Wourgaft N, Tarral A . The Lancet Global Health 2021;9(7)e999-e1008. doi: 10.1038/d41586-021-01571-1
Summary: Fexinidazole is the first oral monotherapy against non-severe stage 2 human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (g-HAT). This prospective, multicentre, open-label, single-arm cohort study carried out in the Democratic Republic of the Congo assessed the safety and efficacy of fexinidazole in stage 1 and early stage 2 g-HAT. Fexinidazole was found to be effective in 99% of the 230 patients included in the study (98% in stage 1, 100% in early stage 2) and no new safety issues were observed. Most patients with g-HAT can be treated with fexinidazole, regardless of disease stage, thus invasive lumbar punctures used to determine disease stage might no longer be necessary for treatment decisions in the majority of patients.